These cookies ensure basic functionalities and security features of the website, anonymously. The cookie is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Other. organisation to survive, a common identity had to form to support this new social structure of state, political organization of society, or the body politic, or, more narrowly, the institutions of government. In precolonial Acholi, lineage heads and elders were most responsible for social control, though one of the attractions that assisted the development of chiefdoms seems to have been the ability of rwodi to help settle disputes that involved more than one lineage. Organizational politics are informal, unofficial, and sometimes behind-the-scenes efforts to sell ideas, influence an organization, increase power, or achieve other targeted objectives (Brandon & Seldman, 2004; Hochwarter, Witt, & Kacmar, 2000). Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree. families living together in hamlets. Due to its central location and the close Wright, A. C. A. Hunting tracts are owned by clans. jok ). By the mid-nineteenth century, about 60 small chiefdoms existed in eastern Acholiland. Vincent (2012). Most prominent among them was the Uganda People's Army (UPA) in Teso and Lango sub region, the West Nile Bank Frontiers (WNBF) in the West Nile region, the Uganda People's Democratic Army, the Holy Spirit Movement and the LRA in the Acholi region. NRA in 1986. With colonial rule The Acholi region and language 51. Ceremonies. The state is a form of human association distinguished from other social groups by its purpose, the establishment of order and security; its methods, the laws and their enforcement; its territory, the area of jurisdiction or geographic boundaries; and finally by its sovereignty . After his own father, however, a man's strongest kinship ties are typically with his mother's brother. Political Organization. Sign up to Minority rights Group International's newsletter to stay up to date with the latest news and publications. the furthest back is the historical reconstruction by Atkinson (2011 [1994]), who described the "The Ancestral Shrine of the Acholi." This book presents seminal anthropological works from that period by p'Bitek himself and by Frank Girling, who was researching among the Acholi when p'Bitek was a teenager. This cookie is set by Stripe payment gateway. Movement. Changing Uganda: The Dilemmas of Structural Adjustment and Revolutionary Change. Makerere University (Kampala), Department of Geography. the northern parts remained ignored for a long time. Deep-rooted divisions and polarization remain between different ethnic groups, and these have been greatly exacerbated by the way in which the countrys leadership has developed since independence. find its conclusion until the 19th century. [26] However, it successfully popularised the LRA in the West. (unpublished thesis) Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms International . Similarly, General Okello Lutwa who toppled the Obote II regime, was an Acholi. [16] In addition, the people have important rituals for cleansing homes and sites, to welcome back people who have been away a long time, to clear spirits from places where killings have occurred, and to welcome people who have been captive., "Acholi It is Contemporary versions or amalgams of these practitioners continue to function in Acholi. "[20] They have continued to work to end the war through negotiation. more. (p. 34). These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. (Ugandan Parliamentary Committee on Defence and Internal Affairs 1997. Orientation Milton Obote, the independence leader, relied heavily on the support of his fellow Luo-speakers Acholi and Langi in government. Even bride-wealth marriages are now often mainly nuclear-family affairs, and other alternatives to traditional marriage are common. [25], Some of the groups in Acholi, like the UPDA, detested the Museveni regime because it had overthrown the government in which they served. Finally a common social order and political culture developed, and new society and Each clan was administered by a council of elders chosen because of their outstanding military performance and because of their senior position in the community. With colonial rule came a new hierarchy of chiefs, clerks, and policemen, all under the authority of a district commissioner. This is used to present users with ads that are relevant to them according to the user profile. Graduating Essay, Department of History, Makerere University (Kampala). Estimated at 1,470,554 (4.4 per cent in the 2014 census). A rebellion in 1911 in response to the British confiscation of Acholi guns was the last large-scale conflict in Acholi until Amin came to power in 1971. comparably flat. Kuturia Housein fired the first gun shot on Acholiland who had never seen and When Britain established its rule during the early twentieth century, both ideological predisposition and practical utility prompted the colonizers to consider the Acholi a "tribe" and to administer the area as a "tribal" unit. Since independence, formal schooling has provided a strong socializing influence from outside the home for more and more Acholi, especially those attending secondary school. This made the chiefs more independent from Extensive mission activity in Acholi by both Protestants and Catholics has attracted many followers since the second decade of the twentieth century. Encyclopedia of World Cultures. The word 'Acholi' is a misnomer that became adopted for convenience over the years. In September 1996, the Ugandan government moved hundreds of thousands of Acholi from the Gulu district into camps, ostensibly for their protection. colonial rule in their region for decades, before finally being integrated in the Ugandan territory They also oversaw village-lineage ritual and chiefdomwide ritual, were the main advisors to their rwot, and were responsible for most of the social control exercised in Acholi. census of 2014, those seven districts were combined inhabited by just under 1.4 million people Individual antecedents of political behavior include political . The essential lawlessness of the Idi Amin and second Milton Obote regimes, however, as well as of the various rebel groups, the Ugandan army, and Karamojong raiders (who have been active in Acholi since the mid-1980s) have led to a breakdown of any meaningful social control in the area. The major art forms of the Acholi have been drumming, singing, and dancing. Situated 1,025 to 1,350 meters above sea level, the Acholi landscape is typical East African game countryrolling grasslands with scattered trees, streams, and rock outcrops. neighboring peoples, was neither rare nor endemic. Chopi (Storch, 2005), Index of languages, language families, linguistic areas, and ethnic groups.. African languages. 2.4. sociopolitical units: lineages at the parish level; chiefdoms at the This cookie is set by Facebook to deliver advertisement when they are on Facebook or a digital platform powered by Facebook advertising after visiting this website. southern part of the country relatively young. Our interactive map highlights countries most at risk of genocide and mass killing. A.D. Of their history during this time only little is known. However, during the dry season, as groups of families were forced to congregate around receding water sources, a greater degree of political organization developed. 102-104, Southern Sudan and the Government of the Republic of the South Sudan, State Minister for Foreign Affairs (International Affairs),, "2014 Uganda Population and Housing Census Main Report",, James Ojent Latigo, Chapter 4: "Northern Uganda tradition-based practices in the Acholi region, 1. The Luo, (also spelled Lwo) are several ethnically and linguistically related Nilo-Semitic ethnic groups that inhabit an area ranging from Egypt and Sudan to South Sudan and Ethiopia, through Northern Uganda and eastern Congo (DRC), into western Kenya, and the Mara Region of Tanzania. element of the social and political environment of the region. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. collective identity evolved, and a common language (Luo) spread. (Atkinson, 2011 All procedures are conducted with care, to attempt to ensure that the spirit of the departed does not become angry. [1994], p. 80). Women daubed the walls with mud, decorating them with geometrical or conventional designs in red, white or grey. Politics has been around for millennia. The movement hopes to strengthen the political and economic power of women in society and so push back destruction of the natural environment. ETHNONYMS: Balumbila, Batoka, Batonga, Bawe, Toka Political Organization Defined A political organization subject to Code section 527 is a party, committee, association, fund or other organization (whether or not incorporated) organized and operated primarily for the purpose of directly or indirectly accepting contributions or making expenditures, or both, for an exempt function. the northern regions, this relationship changed. Langlands, B. W. (1971). The term is derived from "Shuuli," first used by nineteenth-century ivory and slave traders who noted the similarity of Acholi Luo to the language of the previously encountered Shilluk or "Collo" of the southern Sudan (Crazzolara 1938, vii-viii). All of these early inhabitants were ironworking mixed farmers, organized into localized patrilineal lineages or, in some cases, into temporary groupings of two to four such lineages. Land Tenure. It was filmed by Australian director Ebony Butler, Simon Hardwidge and Ugandan author Frey Onen. Rwot, 'ruler'). As of September 2009, large numbers of Acholi people remain in camps as internally displaced persons. Refer to each styles convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. In . development of the chiefdom and clan system in the 17th and 18th century that is still a vital Acholiland or "Acoli-land" (also known as the Acholi sub-region) is a necessarily inexact ethnolinguistic taxonomy that refers to the region traditionally inhabited by the Acholi. identity is rather disputed. "At Home in the Village: Growing Up in Acholi." southeast by the Langi region and to the south, across the Nile, by Bunyoro. ETHNONYMS: Afipa, Wafipa Tito and Bazilio, who were Acholi by tribe, fled the country into exile. [26], In 2016, the multi award-winning film, A Brilliant Genocide was produced. . The PEPFAR Uganda 2023 Science Summit on HIV and TB: Following the Science and Sustaining the Gains as PEPFAR Turns Twenty This report is a record of the virtual summit organized by the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Uganda for its stakeholders; Uganda Ministry of Health (MoH) including its Public Health Fellowship Program (PHFP), implementing partners, and . But a chief's territory seldom corresponded to any pre-colonial entity, while his wide-ranging executive and judicial powers were a complete novelty. Orientation The Acholi are the descendants of a variety of Luo-speaking peoples who are believed to have migrated three or four centuries ago from adjacent areas of what is now South Sudan into what is now the Acholi district of Uganda. Peace negotiations to end the long-running rebellion by the Lords Resistance Army continued, while security in the north improved through 2007. Acholi Sub-region is consist of seven districts, namely; Gulu, Kitgum, Lamwo, Pader, Agago, Amuru and Nwoya, and are situtated in northern Uganda. became more frequent, more deadly, and more widely spread. Over the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, some seventy chiefdoms were founded throughout the area that became Acholi, leading to the development of a new social order and political culture, the spread of a new language (Luo), and the evolution of a new society and collective identity. their clans, giving them the ability to accumulate wealth and power beyond their rights to land Uganda Journal 3(3): 175-202. At the height of the insurgency, some 1.8 million people were living in camps in the north, and due to a combination of LRA activities and the Ugandan armys counter-offensives virtually the entire population of Acholiland was displaced. Encyclopedia of World Cultures. This cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. political organisation of the acholipadma shri award 2012 list. Marriage has been typically patrilocal and patriarchal, with the husband and father as the undisputed head of the household. However, this rebellion was defeated when it attempted to attack During the colonial period, political leadership in Acholi was contested among those with traditional leadership qualifications and others who benefited from the new dispensation, including collaborators with the British and those who managed to obtain Western education. At first fighting against the insurgence of the army of the central government, the groups, the Ugandan army, and Karamojong raiders (who have been active Thanks for using our World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples! Conflict. Farming and hunting dominated the live in this rural second term, Acholi soldiers played key roles in the massive conflict in Orientation social control in the area. They also kept goats, sheep and cattle. Despite their common language and ethnic designation, the Acholi of Uganda and the southern Sudan have distinct origins and developed along different historical trajectories; the remainder of this cultural summary will focus on the more populous Uganda Acholi. One obvious candidate, Bazilio Olara-Okello who, although unrelated to Tito Okello, was, as in the case of Oyite Ojok, another officer who participated in the overthrow of Idi Amin. Used to track the information of the embedded YouTube videos on a website. This included both agricultural and hunting land. Therefore, its best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publications requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: As a result, many widowed Acholi have been unable to access their land on return to their homes. 30. Further he described how this negative experience led to generally negative attitudes towards This belief underlies the customary land tenure rule that prohibits women from having rights to land independent of their relationship with their father or husband. Milton Obote (1962-71, 1980-85). others who benefited from the new dispensation, including collaborators Further tidying up and smoothing over the grave take place within the week. The Acholi people (also spelled Acoli) are a Nilotic ethnic group of Luo peoples (also spelled Lwo), found in Magwi County in South Sudan and Northern Uganda (an area commonly referred to as Acholiland), including the districts of Agago, Amuru, Gulu, Kitgum, Nwoya, Lamwo, Pader and Omoro District. It does not correspond to any user ID in the web application and does not store any personally identifiable information. L. No. B. K. (1994). In such a context, the land rights of those with the least power widows, the disabled, the elderly were very insecure. Chiefs are chosen from one lineage. outsiders: The Arabs had established a killing government on Acholi, some of the chiefs who They were approached in regard to such general concerns as good health, fertility, and appeals or thanks for good harvests in ceremonies that usually emphasized the consciousness, cohesiveness, and continuation of their respective groups as functioning corporate entities. The purpose of the cookie is to determine if the user's browser supports cookies. 30 Chiefly authority was however not absolute, as power was shared with lineage elders ( ladit kaka) and political authority was mainly vested in [17] Most of the LRA returnees, numbering 12,000, underwent nyono tong gweno ('stepping on the egg') after returning to their home villages, to help restore them to home. Under Ugandan Pres. Okot p'Bitek's epic poem, Song of Lawino, debates Acholi customs around the time that Uganda became independent.
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